Forest management plan, a written scheme of management aiming at continuity of policy and action and controlling the treatments includes several steps namely demarcation of boundaries, site preparation, planting, irrigation, weeding, fertilizing, pruning, thinning and regeneration felling. When establishing a forest plantation, lay-out need to be prepared, then site preparation and finally planting operations are carried out.
Preparation of lay-out includes confirming the location and shape of the forest plantation, preparation of road network plan, location of waterways, subdivision for fire breaks and access, spacing and mapping. Site preparation is done to create favorable growing conditions for seeds and seedlings, and to facilitate tree planting operations. This depends on the purpose of plantation, species to be planted, existing vegetative cover and soil conditions of the plantation site. Field activities which are carried out in site preparation are removal of the existing vegetation to reduce or eliminate competition and ground preparation to improve water retention and provide optimal soil conditions. Manual, mechanical, chemical methods and burning is usually carried out for vegetation clearance of the site. After vegetation clearance ground preparation is done by ploughing, sub-soiling, pre-planting harrowing, preparation of planting pits and terracing. For preparation of planting pits, planting design is important. Planting design decisions are obtained according to planting objectives and operational requirements associated with tending of planting. Different site preparation practices are carried out for different types of land uses (eg: crop fields, fallow crop field with herbaceous weeds, woody species or shrubs, pastures and open areas, existing timber stands).
After site preparation and planting operations, early management practices such as protection and cultural treatments are carried out. Protection need to be provided against wild and domestic animal predation, insect and fungi, and weeds. And also watering practices and fertilizing is done for plantations for proper management and to achieve ultimate forest management plan.